Hamilton’s qualification was far from straight forward as he came close to crashing out of Q2 twice in two separate incidents with Kimi Raikkonen and Sergey Sirotkin.
The Brit put those near misses behind him in Q3 to finish ahead of Sebastian Vettel.
However, the German could face a huge grid penalty after breaking the weighing scales at the start of Q2.
Valterri Bottas and Kimi Raikkonen then finished third and fourth respectively.
“That was a tough qualifying session,” Hamilton said.
“Obviously the weather was going up and down and we didn’t know what to expect.
“Ferrari have been incredibly quick and a lot of work has gone on from my engineers to make sure we have the car in the bets place we could.
“I am pretty happy to be here in Bazil. I have got Senna’s name on the back of my helmet and I didn’t know if I had pole.
“I had a bit of under steer in a few places but I was so glad when I found out I had pole.
“I just appreciate the love I get from the Brazilian fans. We have really grown to adore each other.
“[Ferrari] had a lot more blistering yesterday than we had on the super-soft tyre.
“We wanted to be on the soft and things swung us the right or wrong way, we will see tomorrow.
Brazilian Grand Prix qualifying results LIVE
Out: Vandoorne, Stroll, Alonso, Hartley, Sainz
Out: Sirotkin, Hulkenberg, Ocon, Perez, Magnussen